His major contribution to twentieth-century thinking was his system of existentialism, an ensemble of ideas describing humans' freedom and responsibilities within a framework of human dignity.
Sartre's Life Sartre was born in in Paris. This was his passport to a teaching career. His phenomenological investigation into the imagination was published in and his Theory of Emotions two years later.
During the Second World War, Sartre wrote his existentialist magnum opus Being and Nothingness and taught the work of Heidegger in a war camp. Being and Nothingness was published in and Existentialism and Humanism in His study of Baudelaire was published in and that of the actor Jean Genet in Inafter three years working on it, Sartre published the Critique of Dialectical Reason.
He was a high profile figure in the Peace Movement. Inhe turned down the Nobel prize for literature. He was actively involved in the May uprising. His study of Flaubert, L'Idiot de la Famille, was published in Inhe claimed no longer to be a Marxist, but his political activity continued until his death in Early Works Sartre's early work is characterised by phenomenological analyses involving his own interpretation of Husserl's method.
Sartre's methodology is Husserlian as demonstrated in his paper "Intentionality: This means that the acts by which consciousness assigns meaning to objects are what is analysed, and that what is sought in the particular examples under examination is their essential structure.
At the core of this methodology is a conception of consciousness as intentional, that is, as 'about' something, a conception inherited from Brentano and Husserl. Sartre puts his own mark on this view by presenting consciousness as being transparent, i. The distinctiveness of Sartre's development of Husserl's phenomenology can be characterised in terms of Sartre's methodology, of his view of the self and of his ultimate ethical interests.
Methodology Sartre's methodology differs from Husserl's in two essential ways. Although he thinks of his analyses as eidetic, he has no real interest in Husserl's understanding of his method as uncovering the Essence of things. For Husserl, eidetic analysis is a clarification which brings out the higher level of the essence that is hidden in 'fluid unclarity' Husserl, Ideas, I.
For Sartre, the task of an eidetic analysis does not deliver something fixed immanent to the phenomenon. It still claims to uncover that which is essential, but thereby recognizes that phenomenal experience is essentially fluid. In Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, Sartre replaces the traditional picture of the passivity of our emotional nature with one of the subject's active participation in her emotional experiences.
Emotion originates in a degradation of consciousness faced with a certain situation. The spontaneous conscious grasp of the situation which characterizes an emotion, involves what Sartre describes as a 'magical' transformation of the situation.
Faced with an object which poses an insurmountable problem, the subject attempts to view it differently, as though it were magically transformed.
Thus an imminent extreme danger may cause me to faint so that the object of my fear is no longer in my conscious grasp. Or, in the case of wrath against an unmovable obstacle, I may hit it as though the world were such that this action could lead to its removal.
The essence of an emotional state is thus not an immanent feature of the mental world, but rather a transformation of the subject's perspective upon the world.
In The Psychology of the Imagination, Sartre demonstrates his phenomenological method by using it to take on the traditional view that to imagine something is to have a picture of it in mind.
Sartre's account of imagining does away with representations and potentially allows for a direct access to that which is imagined; when this object does not exist, there is still an intention albeit unsuccessful to become conscious of it through the imagination.
So there is no internal structure to the imagination. It is rather a form of directedness upon the imagined object. Imagining a heffalump is thus of the same nature as perceiving an elephant. Both are spontaneous intentional or directed acts, each with its own type of intentionality.
The Ego Sartre's view also diverges from Husserl's on the important issue of the ego. For Sartre, Husserl adopted the view that the subject is a substance with attributes, as a result of his interpretation of Kant's unity of apperception. Husserl endorsed the Kantian claim that the 'I think' must be able to accompany any representation of which I am conscious, but reified this 'I' into a transcendental ego.
Such a move is not warranted for Sartre, as he explains in The Transcendence of the Ego. Moreover, it leads to the following problems for our phenomenological analysis of consciousness. The ego would have to feature as an object in all states of consciousness.
This would result in its obstructing our conscious access to the world.Early Life Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, a naval officer, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer. Sartre lost his father in ashio-midori.com: Jun 21, Jean-Paul Sartre: Jean-Paul Sartre, French novelist, playwright, and exponent of Existentialism—a philosophy acclaiming the freedom of the individual human being.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in , but he declined it. Learn more about Sartre’s life, works, and philosophy in this article. Witness to My Life: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, relates to the early years of the unconventional Sartre-de Beauvoir love relationship, during which time he wrote his first fictional and philosophical works and served as a professor of philosophy at several universities.
Jean-Paul Sartre, () born in Paris in , studied at the École Normale Supérieure from to and became Professor of Philosophy at Le Havre in With the help of a stipend from the Institut Français he studied in Berlin () the philosophies of Edmund Husserl and Martin.
Sartre (–) is arguably the best known philosopher of the twentieth century. His indefatigable pursuit of philosophical reflection, literary creativity and, in the second half of his life, active political commitment gained him worldwide renown, if not admiration.
This lends both Heidegger's and Sartre's early philosophies a kind of “pragmatist” character that Sartre, at least, will never abandon. For a complete annotated bibliography of Sartre's works see Michel Contat and Michel Rybalka (eds.), The Writings of Jean-Paul Sartre (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.