Constructivist epistemology Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, is historically and culturally specific, and that it is in part shaped through the power struggles within a community. Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities as a pure correspondence theory might hold. Rather, perceptions of truth are viewed as contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including racesexualityand genderare socially constructed.
The Variety of Values: Essays on Morality, Meaning, and Love Published: Reviewed by Sara Protasi, University of Puget Sound Few essays evoke the same enthusiastic praise for their combination of rigorous reasoning, elegant writing style and influential thesis as Susan Wolf's "Moral Saints.
It contains the seeds, in Wolf's own metaphor, from which sprouted an impressively cohesive collection of arguments concerning the forcefulness and inescapability of moral demands, and the significance and resilience of nonmoral values.
In the introduction, with a mixture of humility and pride, Wolf calls attention to the systematic nature of these thirteen articles only one of which is previously unpublishedand details the connections among them.
She highlights central, recurrent ideas and explains how the essays relate to the original themes of "Moral Saints," namely how there is more to value than morality, how moral considerations may be less forceful than moral philosophers have often portrayed them, and how different value reasons can pull us in opposite directions.
The first part of the book, "Moral and Nonmoral Values," focuses on the nature and importance of nonmoral values, and their relation to moral ones. The connected topic of the structure and importance of morality is discussed in part 4, "The Concept of Duty.
Wolf devotes the final section of the introduction to the cover of the book, which features a still life by Willem Heda, the Dutch painter, depicting the remains of a luscious feast.
Wolf tells us that she appreciates the Dutch Golden Age genre because of its rich textures, and one cannot help but think of the rich textures of her philosophical writing. Wolf explains that she is attracted by what she considers these paintings' characteristic "ambivalence and ambiguity" 8: But the paintings themselves are magnificent objects, and their melancholic message is obfuscated, contradicted, and possibly nullified by the very means with which it is conveyed.
Wolf is here pointing to a tension that infuses all the essays, one way or the other: She constantly shows us how decent, well-rounded agents cannot, and should not, always wholeheartedly comply with their moral obligations, for two reasons. First, because nonmoral values are intrinsically important, and Wolf convincingly articulates this importance throughout the book, highlighting the shallowness of the dichotomy morality vs.
Second, because morality cannot keep its irreplaceable role of requiring us to take into account the needs and interests of others, if it is too demanding.
When we conceive of morality as overriding every other practical consideration, people will not have "the freedom to live lives that they can find to be good and rewarding" and will be less inclined to respect moral imperatives. Notwithstanding her commitment to the plurality of values, however, Wolf ends up neglecting some crucial aspects of what is symbolized in her beloved Dutch Golden Age paintings: To start with this last point: Wolf rarely talks in positive terms about the more mundane kinds of nonmoral values that occupy a central role in most people's lives.
For instance, in "Good-for-Nothings" ch. Her examples of good things are: She explicitly contrasts these activities and pursuits with less valuable counterparts: Wolf's examples of good things are well-chosen to resonate with her audience of professional philosophers in the Anglophone tradition, in its current demographic make-up.
Extending Wolf's point to different cultural and socio-economic contexts seems relatively straightforward. For instance, we could talk of reading the Mahabharata, watching Taiwanese puppetry shows, practicing the djembe.
However, this expansion would leave unaltered the most significant feature of Wolf's examples: After saying that art, philosophy, and science are among the "things of immeasurable value" 76 with which the world is replete, and that "we may think of our lives as better, and more fortunate, insofar as we are able to be in appreciative touch with some of the most valuable of these" 76Wolf goes on to say that "a good human life involves 'enjoyment of the excellent'" But having immeasurable value is not the same as being excellent, and treating them as equivalent has two consequences.
First, it makes one more likely to overlook admittedly less complex sources of values, such as those stemming from appreciation of natural beauty, or from sensual activities such as eating, or having sex, the kind of transient but valuable experiences that were shunned by Dutch Calvinists.
Secondly, it risks restricting the chance of a "better, and more fortunate" life to those who are capable of experiencing excellence. Consider a cognitively disabled person. Her impairment prevents her from intellectual excellence: She does, however, watch Project Runway, she can read children books, and she really enjoys eating juicy apples and walking in the park.
Her impairment also prevents her from moral excellence. While she may be naturally virtuous, in the Aristotelian sense, she cannot achieve practical wisdom, distinguish between hypothetical and categorical imperatives, or maximize utility. Finally, while she is affectionate to her family members, her loving behavior is often immature and self-centered, comparable to that of a toddler.Feb 18, · So I read portions of "The Four Idols" (Francis Bacon), "On the Origin of Species" (Charles Darwin) and "Nonmoral Nature" (Francis Gould), and I'm now writing an essay about the lack of acceptance in society of darwin's theory, past and ashio-midori.com: Resolved.
By taking advantage of analytic resources only recently being developed in the philosophy of institutions (social ontology), the paper shows that constraints existing in law by virtue of its institutional nature render nonmoral theoretical disagreement widely possible, and frequently actual.
Stephen Jay Gould Nonmoral Nature Essay; Stephen Jay Gould Nonmoral Nature Essay. and indicate how they help or hinder Jay Berry the protagonist in Wilson Rawls novel Summer of the Monkeys Thesis: Before Jay Berry succeeds his goal he encounters many conflicts that both hinder and help him through his amazing adventure.
I. In the following I will consider Nietzsche’s essay ‘On truth and Lies in a nonmoral sense’. Nature, likewise, is said to “draw a few breaths” which combines anthropomorphism with the metaphor of taking a while to pause. to convince the reader that he has a valid . "Nonmoral Nature Summary" Essays and Research Papers Nonmoral Nature Summary Evil in Nature and a Benevolent God The idea of the existence of evil in nature many times creates arguments .
Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews is an electronic, reasons can pull us in opposite directions. The first part of the book, "Moral and Nonmoral Values," focuses on the nature and importance of nonmoral values, and their relation to moral ones.
Wolf reviews different interpretations and consequent responses to Williams' thesis.