Concern for environment has increased and spread over recent years. Pollution-a major environmental concern.
Concept, Types and Basic Structure of an Ecosystem! Concept of an Ecosystem: The term ecosystem was coined in by the Oxford ecologist Arthur Tansley to encompass the interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the environment at a given site. The living and non-living components of an ecosystem are known as biotic and abiotic components, respectively.
Smith has summarized common characteristics of most of the ecosystems as follows: The ecosystem is a major structural and functional unit of ecology. The structure of an ecosystem is related to its species diversity in the sense that complex ecosystem have high species diversity.
The function of ecosystem is related to energy flow and material cycles within and outside the system. The relative amount of energy needed to maintain an ecosystem depends on its structure. Complex ecosystems needed less energy to maintain themselves.
Young ecosystems develop and change from less complex to more complex ecosystems, through the process called succession. Each ecosystem has its own energy budget, which cannot be exceeded.
Adaptation to local environmental conditions is the important feature of the biotic components of an ecosystem, failing which they might perish.
The function of every ecosystem involves a series of cycles, e. We can classify ecosystems as follows: These ecosystems are capable of operating and maintaining themselves without any major interference by man. A classification based on their habitat can further be made: These are maintained by man.
These are manipulated by man for different purposes, e. Basic Structure of an Ecosystem: Every ecosystem has a non-living abiotic and living biotic components. Basic inorganic compounds of an organism, habitat or an area like carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, etc.
The amount of these inorganic substances present at any given time, in an ecosystem is called as the standing state or standing quality of an ecosystem. Whereas, organic components e. The physical environment, viz.
From the trophic nutritional point of view, an ecosystem has autotrophic self-nourishing and a heterotrophic other nourishing components: This component is mainly constituted by the green plants, algae and all photosynthetic organisms.
Chemosynthetic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, algae, grasses, mosses, shrubs, herbs and trees manufacture food from simple inorganic substances by fixing energy and are therefore called as producers.
The members of this component cannot make their own food. They consume the matter built by the producers and are therefore called as consumers. They may be herbivores, carnivores or omnivores. Herbivores are called as primary consumers whereas carnivores and omnivores are called as secondary consumers.
Collectively we can call them as macro-consumers. Heterotrophic organisms chiefly bacteria and fungi that breakdown the complex compounds of dead protoplasm, absorb some of the products and release simple substances usable by the producers are called as decomposers or reducers.
Collectively we call them as micro consumers.Ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, . Published: Mon, 5 Dec Environmental ethics is the ethical relationship between people and the environment in which we live.
There are many ethical issues and decisions that people make, within the respect of the environment. AP Biology Fall Essay Review 4. The storage and transfer of energy are essential activities for all living organisms. a. Explain why living organisms require a continuous intake of energy.
Creating And Maintaining Stability In Ecosystem. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, The essay tries to identify the ecosystem function, which should be the indicator to demonstrate the stability of the ecosystem. Sequestering of Carbon Dioxide.
Many organisms in the ecosystem does the function of removal of carbon dioxide. Read National Geographic's latest stories about the environment. Essay on Ecosystem | Environment.
Article shared by: Photosynthesis and nutrient uptake by autotrophs converts energy, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients into a wide variety of carbohydrate structures which are then used by secondary producers to create an even larger variety of living biomass.
They found in benthic marine ecosystems.