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Single-use zoning This refers to a situation where commercial, residentialinstitutional and industrial areas are separated from one another.
Consequently, large tracts of land are devoted to a single use and are segregated from one another by open space, infrastructure, or other barriers. As a result, the places where people live, work, shop, and recreate are far from one another, usually to the extent that walking, transit use and bicycling are impractical, so all these activities generally require an automobile.
It is defined as low-density, geographically spread-out patterns of employment, where the majority of jobs in a given metropolitan area are located outside of the main city's central business district CBDand increasingly in the suburban periphery. It is often the result of urban disinvestment, the geographic freedom of employment location allowed by predominantly car-dependent commuting patterns of many American suburbs, and many companies' desire to locate in low-density areas that are often more affordable and offer potential for expansion.
Spatial mismatch is related to job sprawl and economic environmental justice. Spatial mismatch is defined as the situation where poor urban, predominantly minority citizens are left without easy access to entry-level jobs, as a result of increasing job sprawl and limited transportation options to facilitate a reverse commute to the suburbs.
Job sprawl has been documented and measured in various ways. It has been shown to be a growing trend in America's metropolitan areas. Inauthor Michael Stoll defined job An analysis of urban sprawl simply as jobs located more than 5-mile 8. Kneebone's study showed the following nationwide breakdown for the largest metropolitan areas in This compares to the year - The study shows CBD employment share shrinking, and job growth focused in the suburban and exurban outer metropolitan rings.
Low-density[ edit ] Sprawl is often characterized as consisting of low- density development. Buildings usually have fewer stories and are spaced farther apart, separated by lawnslandscapingroads or parking lots.
Specific measurements of what constitutes low-density is culturally relative; for example, in the United States houses per acre might be considered low-density while in the UK would still be considered low-density.
The impact of low density development in many communities is that developed or "urbanized" land is increasing at a faster rate than the population is growing. This term refers to the relationship, or lack thereof, between subdivisions.
Such developments are typically separated by large green beltsi. This is a 20th and 21st century phenomenon generated by the current custom of requiring a developer to provide subdivision infrastructure as a condition of development.
In the past, when a local government built all the streets in a given location, the town could expand without interruption and with a coherent circulation system, because it had condemnation power. Private developers generally do not have such power although they can sometimes find local governments willing to helpand often choose to develop on the tracts that happen to be for sale at the time they want to build, rather than pay extra or wait for a more appropriate location.
Conversion of agricultural land to urban use[ edit ] Land for sprawl is often taken from fertile agricultural landswhich are often located immediately surrounding cities; the extent of modern sprawl has consumed a large amount of the most productive agricultural land,  as well as forest, desert and other wilderness areas.
Thus urban sprawl is subsidized by the tax code. This photograph is an example of Canadian suburban development. Housing subdivisions are large tracts of land consisting entirely of newly built residences.
Subdivisions often incorporate curved roads and cul-de-sacs. These subdivisions may offer only a few places to enter and exit the development, causing traffic to use high volume collector streets.
All trips, no matter how short, must enter the collector road in a suburban system. Similar developments in the UK are called Retail Parks. Strip malls consisting mostly of big box stores or category killers are sometimes called "power centers" U.
These developments tend to be low-density; the buildings are single-story and there is ample space for parking and access for delivery vehicles. This character is reflected in the spacious landscaping of the parking lots and walkways and clear signage of the retail establishments.
Some strip malls are undergoing a transformation into Lifestyle centers ; entailing investments in common areas and facilities plazas, cafes and shifting tenancy from daily goods to recreational shopping. Walmart Supercenter in Luray, Virginia. Another prominent form of retail development in areas characterized by sprawl is the shopping mall.
Unlike the strip mall, this is usually composed of a single building surrounded by a parking lot that contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores Gruen and Smith The function and size is also distinct from the strip mall.Jun 19, · Urban Sprawl, Chad Jensen’s upcoming release from GMT Games, has gotten quite a bit of interest from those who are fans of his other, recent popular release: Dominant Species.
After Dominant Species’ widespread critical acclaim, and large amount of sales, it received a wave of pre-orders that proved. Brawl over Sprawl,”Time, March 22, , pp.
45–46; Gurwitt (, pp. 19–20); and Rusk (, p. 14). 4.
For an analysis of sprawl based on a much broader definition, see Downs (). Throughout the paper, the word “city” refers to an entire urban area.
When necessary, a dis-tinction is made between central city and suburbs. This paper studies the determinants of urban sprawl in France using panel datasets for the four largest metropolitan areas (Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Lille) over the period – A measure of urban sprawl is proposed at municipality level.
Due to the huge heterogeneity of the panels, it seems. An urban sprawl index (USI) was calculated as the ratio of urban expansion to population increase. The urban sprawl index measures the growth in urban area over time adjusted for the growth in population.
The conflict caused by urban sprawl among socioeconomic development, resources, ecology, and the environment is becoming more and more severe.
This study’s primary objective is to recognize the spatial patterns of urban sprawl. This book provides a comprehensive discussion on urban growth and sprawl, and how they can be analyzed using remote sensing imageries.
It compiles the views of numerous researchers which help in understanding urban growth and sprawl; their patterns, process, causes, consequences, and countermeasures.